Java 2 Ada

Bacula database cleanup

By stephane.carrez

Bacula maintains a catalog of files in a database. Over time, the database grows and despite some automatic purge and job cleanup, some information remains that is no longer necessary. This article explains how to remove some dead records from the Bacula catalog.

Bacula maintains a list of backup jobs that have been executed in the job table. For each job, it keeps the list of files that have been saved in the file table. When you do a restore, you somehow select the job to restore and pick files from that job. There should not exist any file entry associated with a non existing job. Unfortunately this is not the case. I've found that some files (more than 2 millions entries) were pointing to some job that did not exist.

Discovering dead jobs still referenced

The first step is to find out which job has been deleted and is still referenced by the file table. First, let's create a temporary table that will hold the job ids associated with the files.

mysql> create temporary table job_files (id bigint);

The use of a temporary table was necessary in my case because the file table is so big and the ReadyNAS so slow that scanning the database takes too much time.

Now, we can populate the temporary table with the job ids:

mysql> insert into job_files select distinct file.jobid from file;
Query OK, 350 rows affected (8 min 53.26 sec)
Records: 350  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

The list of jobs that have been removed but are still referenced by a file is obtained by:

mysql> select job_files.id from job_files
 left join job on job_files.id = job.jobid
 where job.jobid is null;
+------+
| id   |
+------+
| 2254 | 
| 2806 | 
+------+
2 rows in set (0.05 sec)

Deleting Dead Files

Deleting all the file records in one blow was not possible for me because there was too many files to delete and the mysql server did not have enough resources on the ReadyNAS to do it. I had to delete these records in batch of 100000 files, the process was repeated several times (each delete query took more than 2mn!!!).

mysql> delete from file where jobid = 2254 limit 100000;

Conclusion

This cleanup process allowed me to reduce the size of the file table from 10 millions entries to 7 millions. This improves the database performance and speeds up the Bacula catalog backup process.

Solving Linux system lock up when intensive disk I/O are performed

By stephane.carrez

When a system lock up occurs, we often blame applications but when you look carefully you may see that despite your multi-core CPU, your applications are sleeping! No cpu activity! So what happens then? Check the I/Os, it could be the root cause!

With Ubuntu 10.04, my desktop computer was freezing when the ReadyNAS Bacula backup was running. Indeed, the Bacula daemon was performing intensive disk operations (on a fast SATA hard disk). The situation was such that it was impossible to use the system, the interface was freezing for a several seconds then working for a few seconds and freezing again.

Linux I/O Scheduler

The I/O scheduler is responsible for organizing the order in which disk operations are performed. Some algorithms allow to minimize the disk head moves, other algorithms tend to anticipate read operations,

When I/O operations are not scheduled correctly, an interactive application such as a desktop or a browser can be blocked until its I/O operations are scheduled and executed (the situation can be even worse for those applications that use the O_SYNC writing mode).

By default, the Linux kernel is configured to use the Completely Fair Queuing scheduler. This I/O scheduler does not provide any time guarantee but it gives in general good performances. Linux provides other I/O schedulers such as the Noop scheduler, the Anticipatory scheduler and the Deadline scheduler.

The deadline scheduler puts an execution time limit to requests to make sure the I/O operation is executed before an expiration time. Typically, a read operation will wait at most 500 ms. This is the I/O scheduler we need to avoid the system lock up.

Checking the I/O Scheduler

To check which I/O scheduler you are using, you can use the following command:

$ cat /sys/block/sda/queue/scheduler
noop anticipatory deadline [cfq]

where sda is the device name of your hard disk (or try hda).

The result indicates the list of supported I/O scheduler as well as the current scheduler used (here the Completely Fair Queuing).

Changing the I/O Scheduler

To change the scheduler, you can echo the desired scheduler name to activate it (you must be root):

# echo deadline >  /sys/block/sda/queue/scheduler

To make sure the I/O scheduler is configured after each system startup, you can add the following lines to your /etc/rc.local startup script:

test -f /sys/block/sda/queue/scheduler &&
  echo deadline > /sys/block/sda/queue/scheduler

test -f /sys/block/sdb/queue/scheduler &&
   echo deadline > /sys/block/sdb/queue/scheduler

test -f /sys/block/hda/queue/scheduler &&
   echo deadline > /sys/block/hda/queue/scheduler

You may have to change the sda and sdb into hda and hdb if you have an IDE hard disk.

Conclusion

After changing the I/O scheduler to use the Deadline scheduler, the desktop was not freezing any more when backups are running.

To add a comment, you must be connected. Login to add a comment

One year of data backup with Bacula on a ReadyNAS duo

By stephane.carrez

After one year of daily and weekly backup using Bacula on a ReadyNAS duo, I wanted to share information about this success story. Bacula is a network backup solution that I installed on a ReadyNAS duo. Bacula allows to make full as well as incremental backups of remote machines. It uses a MySQL database that also runs on the ReadyNAS (see Installing Mysql server on a ReadyNAS duo) and it stores backups on media such as tapes, CDs, DVDs or files.

Backup Architecture

The Bacula software is running directly on the ReadyNAS duo. The backup is configured to backup my desktop which is accessed locally, and it also backups a server running on the Internet (vacs.fr). Since the ReadyNAS is behind my Livebox, it connects to the Internet server by using a secure tunnel with OpenVPN.

Network Backup with Bacula on a ReadyNAS

The ReadyNAS duo has two 1To hard disks configured as RAID 1 mirrors.

  • Bacula director and bacular storage daemons are running on the ReadyNAS duo
  • Bacula client is running on each machine that must be backed up (Desktop and Remote Server).

Backup Pools and Strategy

Bacula is configured to create backups on file tapes. Each tape is a flat file stored on the ReadyNAS duo in some directory. I've configured file tapes so that they do not extend 4.3G (so that copying and burning DVDs could be possible).

File tapes are grouped in several pools. Each pool represent a class of backup. My primary backup strategy is split in 3 backup grades:

A-Grade backups represent critical files that must not be lost at all. They represent the files that I really care and for which I want to have one year of backup. The retention policy is set to one year with one full backup per month. In short, it means I can restore the data I had anytime during the last year. Basically it contains my full desktop home directory as well as specific directories (private photos and so on).

B-Grade backups represent less critical files for which I may not need to restore an old version. The retention policy is 180 days. This backup grade is used for software or files that I download from Internet.

C-Grade backups have a 65-days retention policy and they are used for the system. Basically, re-installation of a server or desktop from scratch is always possible but keeping the configuration files in the backup is very helpful.

A Pool is defined for each of these grades:

# A-Grade pool: 1 year retention, 12 full backups (1 full bkp/month)
Pool {
  Name = A-Full-Pool
  Pool Type = Backup
  # Bacula can automatically recycle Volumes
  Recycle = yes 
  AutoPrune = yes # Prune expired volumes
  Volume Retention = 360 days
  Label Format=A-Full-
  # 100 volumes of 4G (expecting 8 volumes/full backup)
  Maximum Volumes=100
}

# B-Grade pool: 6 months retention, 3 full backups (1 full bkp/2 months)
Pool {
  Name = B-Full-Pool
  Pool Type = Backup
  Recycle = yes
  AutoPrune = yes # Prune expired volumes
  Volume Retention = 180 days
  Label Format=B-Full-
  Maximum Volumes=40
}

# C-Grade pool: 2 months retention, 2 full backups (1 full bkp/45 day)
Pool {
  Name = C-Full-Pool
  Pool Type = Backup
  Recycle = yes
  AutoPrune = yes
  Volume Retention = 65 days # 2 months
  Label Format=C-Full-
  # 5 volumes of 4G (expecting 2 volumes/full backup)
  Maximum Volumes=5
}

In addition to these pools, an incremental and a differential pool must be defined.

Bacula FileSet

The Bacula FileSet represent the file patterns that have to be backed up. I have defined one FileSet for each machine and backup grade combination. The filesets are compressed. Files matching some patterns are excluded (

  • .o, *.log, *.bak, *~). The FileSet below is for my desktop and for the A-Grade backup. Directories /home, /data and /photos will be taken into account in the backup.
# List of files to be backed up
FileSet {
  Name = "Zebulon A-Grade"     
  Include {                    
  Options {                  
      signature=SHA1           
      compression=GZIP         
      verify = pins1           
      onefs = yes              
      WildFile = "*~"          
      WildFile = "*.bak"       
      WildFile = "*.log"       
      WildFile = "*.o"         
      Exclude = yes            
    }
    File = /home
    File = /data
    File = /photos
  }
}

Other FileSets are defined for the same machine but for different files. They will be used for other backup grades.

Backup Schedule

The schedule defines when the backup has to be executed. Each backup grade has its own schedule. This allows to run B-Grade and C-Grade backups less frequently than A-Grade.

The A-Grade backups have a full backup schedule the first Saturday of each month. A full backup of the desktop takes arround 5 hours and uses 57Go (compressed). A differential backup takes arround 2 hours and uses 10Go (compressed). The incremental backup uses 2-4Go (compressed) and 5 to 15 minutes. (these numbers depend on what is being backed up). The schedule hours are defined according to this.

Schedule {
  Name = "Weekly-A-Grade"
  Run = Full 1st sat at 23:05
  Run = Differential 2nd-5th sun at 22:10
  Run = Incremental sun-fri at 22:10
}
Schedule {
  Name = "Weekly-B-Grade"
  Run = Full jan 1st sat at 23:05
  Run = Full mar 1st sat at 23:05
  Run = Full may 1st sat at 23:05
  Run = Full jul 1st sat at 23:05
  Run = Full sep 1st sat at 23:05
  Run = Full nov 1st sat at 23:05
  Run = Differential 2nd-5th sun at 22:10
  Run = Incremental wed at 22:10
}
Schedule {
  Name = "Weekly-C-Grade"
  Run = Full jan 1st sat at 2:05
  Run = Full mar 1st sat at 2:05
  Run = Full may 1st sat at 2:05
  Run = Full jul 1st sat at 2:05
  Run = Full sep 1st sat at 2:05
  Run = Full nov 1st sat at 2:05
  Run = Differential 2nd-5th sat at 2:10
  Run = Incremental sat at 2:10
}

Bacula Job

The Bacula Job describes what must be backed up (FileSets), when (Schedule) and where (Pools). There is one job definition for each fileset.

Job {
  Name = "Zebulon-A"
  Type = Backup
  Client = zebulon-fd
  FileSet = "Zebulon A-Grade"
  Schedule = "Weekly-A-Grade"
  Storage = File
  Messages = Standard
  Pool = Default
  Full Backup Pool = A-Full-Pool
  Incremental Backup Pool = Incr-Pool
  Differential Backup Pool = Diff-Pool
  Priority = 8
}

Some Statistics

After more than one year of backups, the total storage space used is now 599G, each tape is 4.3G. The storage space used by file pools is as follows:

A Grade Full Tapes  73  313Go
B Grade Full Tapes  28  120Go
C Grade Full Tapes   4   17Go
Differential tapes  22   94Go
Incremental tapes   13   55Go

The MySQL database has grown a lot and is quite large. The InnoDB database file only contains the bacula database and it has grown up to 2Go now. The filename table references 885527 records and the path table references 546784 rows.

Conclusion

Bacula is not easy to configure but when you do it right it provides a performant backup solution. To learn more about the configuration, have a look at Bacula Documentation. Installed on a ReadyNAS duo, it proved to be a robust solution for a backup of a small set of machines. You cannot expect big performances during backup or restore. The performance bottleneck is the MySQL database which runs on the ReadyNAS.

Restoring files from the backup is quite easy but this is another story...

To add a comment, you must be connected. Login to add a comment

Installing Mysql server on a ReadyNAS duo

By stephane.carrez 11 comments

Installing the APT extension

The ReadyNAS duo runs a Debian Sarge distribution. The apt-get commands are not available and we must install the APT addon:

  1. Download the APT extension. I've used the following link:

    http://www.readynas.com/download/addons/4.00/APT_1.0.bin
  2. Go in the ReadyNAS FrontView with your browser and go to System -> Update -> Local Update
  3. Upload the APT binary file. The ReadyNAS verifies that content and if it is correct it displays a description of the addon.
  4. Acknowledge the installation of the addon

After installation, the ReadyNAS must be restarted. Shortly after, you will receive an email:

Subject: Addon Package Progress (nas-XX-XX-XX)
Successfully installed APT.

Debian Sarge Package update

It may be good to check the debian packages. Connect to the ReadyNAS using ssh and run the following commands:

apt-get update

Installation of Mysql server

The mysql-server-5.0 is supposed to be installed according to dpkg -i command. However, the files are not there and they have probably be removed. This is also the case for some utilities which are used by some installation scripts.

Preparation

The /usr/bin/chfn utility is missing and we need it for Mysql installation. We must re-install the passwd package. Download it and install it as follows;

# dpkg -i passwd_4.0.3-31sarge9_sparc.deb

The /usr/bin/logger is also missing. We must re-install the bsdutils_2.12p-4sarge2_sparc.deb package. Download it and install it as follows:

# dpkg -i bsdutils_2.12p-4sarge2_sparc.deb

Edit the /etc/mysql/my.cnf file and change the line:

user            = admin

into

user           = mysql

Additional packages

As reported by RoB (see comments), the following packages are also necessary for mysql-server:

# apt-get install libreadline5 libdbi-perl

Get Mysql packages

The mysql packages are part of backports.org (backport from Etch). You should download the following:

    Mysql installation

    Install the Mysql server debian packages:

    # dpkg -i libmysqlclient15off_5.0.32-7etch5~bpo31+1_sparc.deb \
    mysql-common_5.0.32-7etch5~bpo31+1_all.deb  \
    mysql-server-5.0_5.0.32-7etch5~bpo31+1_sparc.deb \
    mysql-client-5.0_5.0.32-7etch5~bpo31+1_sparc.deb \
    mysql-client_5.0.32-7etch5~bpo31+1_all.deb
    
    Installation Problem and Solution

    If in the installation process you see a message '/etc/init.d/mysql' not found, force the extraction of mysql-server files without the execution of the installation script:

    # dpkg --extract mysql-server-5.0_5.0.32-7etch5~bpo31+1_sparc.deb /
    

    After that, redo the dpkg -i command.

    If you see some errors in the logs:

    [ERROR] /usr/sbin/mysqld: Can't find file: './mysql/host.frm' (errno: 13)
    

    Fix ownership of some existing directories:

    # chown mysql /var/lib/mysql
    # chown mysql /var/lib/mysql/mysql
    

    and restart mysql

    Fix /etc/mysql/debian.cnf

    After installation, the debian.cnf file used by mysqlcheck uses a user that does not exist. You can either create the debian-sys-maint user in mysql or change it to 'root' by editing the file /etc/mysql/debian.cnf and change user and password to use 'root'.

    Fix startup scripts

    Remove the following two startup scripts, they are not necessary for us:

    1. rm /etc/rc2.d/S18mysql-ndb
    2. rm /etc/rc2.d/S17mysql-ndb-mgm

    Testing the database

    Verify that the Mysql database is running:

    nas-D2-24-F2:/var/log# mysql
    Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
    Your MySQL connection id is 6
    Server version: 5.0.32-Debian_7etch5~bpo31+1 Debian etch distribution
    
    Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the buffer.
    
    mysql>    
    
    11 comments
    To add a comment, you must be connected. Login to add a comment

    Connecting to a ReadyNAS duo using SSH

    By stephane.carrez 6 comments

    Before you start, you must be aware that there is a risk that you break your ReadyNAS. You should not do this unless you really understand what it is doing.

    Installing the EnableRootSSH extension

    The first step is to install the addon which allows you to connect to your ReadyNAS using ssh:

    1. Download the EnableRootSSH extension. I've used the following link: http://www.readynas.com/download/addons/4.00/EnableRootSSH_1.0.bin
    2. Go in the ReadyNAS FrontView with your browser and go to System -> Update -> Local Update
    3. Upload the EnableRootSSH binary file. The ReadyNAS verifies that content and if it is correct it displays a description of the addon.
    4. Acknowledge the installation of the addon

    After installation, the ReadyNAS must be restarted. Shortly after, you will receive an email:

    Subject: Addon Package Progress (nas-XX-XX-XX)
    Successfully enabled root SSH access.  The root password is now the same as your admin password.
    

    Connecting to the ReadyNAS using ssh

    With the EnableRootSSH extension in place, you can easily connect using ssh. The RSA key fingerprint of your ReadyNAS is prompted and you must accept it in your known_hosts.

    $ ssh -l root pollux
    The authenticity of host 'pollux (192.168.1.6)' can't be established.
    RSA key fingerprint is 01:c8:00:b4:56:5a:f9:fe:2d:73:9a:b0:55:a1:31:2f.
    Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
    Warning: Permanently added 'pollux,192.168.1.6' (RSA) to the list of known hosts.
    root@pollux's password:
    Linux nas-D2-24-F2 2.6.17.8ReadyNAS #1 Fri Sep 19 15:04:06 PDT 2008 padre unknown
    nas-D2-24-F2:~# 
    

    Exploring the ReadyNAS

    Since the ReadyNAS runs a Debian Sarge with a GNU/Linux 2.6.17 kernel, you can easily explore the system.

    CPU and Memory

    The CPU is a Sparc-V8 (LEON) that Infrant has optimized for their needs. It integrates hardware RAID, the gigabit Ethernet and 4 SATA channels, a 64-bit DDR SRAM controller, a DMA, a 3 DES engine and a PCI/USB interface.

    nas-D2-24-F2:~# cat /proc/cpuinfo
    cpu             : Infrant Technologics, Inc. - neon version: 0
    fpu             : Softfpu
    ncpus probed    : 1
    ncpus active    : 1
    BogoMips        : 186.36
    MMU             : version: 0
    LP              : HW.FW version: 0.1
    FPGA            : fpga000000-0 Configuration: 0
    AHB arbitraion  : 7
    CPU id          : 0
    Switch          : 0
    ASIC            : IT3107
    

    And the memory:

    nas-D2-24-F2:~# cat /proc/meminfo
    MemTotal:       226384 kB
    MemFree:        146560 kB
    Buffers:         15440 kB
    Cached:          42352 kB
    SwapCached:          0 kB
    Active:          61776 kB
    Inactive:        22944 kB
    HighTotal:           0 kB
    HighFree:            0 kB
    LowTotal:       226384 kB
    LowFree:        146560 kB
    SwapTotal:      255968 kB
    SwapFree:       255968 kB
    Dirty:               0 kB
    Writeback:           0 kB
    Mapped:          39712 kB
    Slab:             5488 kB
    CommitLimit:    391792 kB
    Committed_AS:    72048 kB
    PageTables:          0 kB
    VmallocTotal:   131008 kB
    VmallocUsed:      1120 kB
    VmallocChunk:   129408 kB
    

    Disks

    The system is installed on the hard disk. It appears to use arround 1.9G from my 1Tb disk.

    nas-D2-24-F2:/usr# df -h
    Filesystem            Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
    /dev/hdc1             1.9G  224M  1.7G  12% /
    tmpfs                  16k     0   16k   0% /USB
    /dev/c/c              925G  543M  924G   1% /c
    

    Other interesting commands:

    The following commands are interesting to explore the system and learn more about it:

    dpkg -l         List of installed packages
    netstat -ln   Network open ports (TCP/UDP/Unix)
    top              Top running processes
    ps aux         List all running processes
    

    Next step

    The next step for me is to see if I can install the Bacula Storage Daemon and see if my bacula server is able to connect to it directly.

    6 comments
    To add a comment, you must be connected. Login to add a comment

    Restoring a complete system after a hard disk failure: bacula to the rescue!!!

    By stephane.carrez

    Step 1: Boot on your Ubuntu 8.04 CD

    Since the disk that crashed contained the system, my computer was not even able to boot. A first step for me was to boot on the Ubuntu CDrom without installing Ubuntu again. After booting I was able to check my other disks, look at the kernel logs to realize that the disk was really completely dead without any hope to recover anything. By looking at my second hard disk, I was able to evaluate what was lost and needed to be recovered. If you have no other disk, you have to setup a new disk to proceed. Booting on the CD also helped me discover some room on my second disk where I would install a new system.

    Step 2: Install the system

    If the system has gone, you may have to re-install it from scratch. This is what I had to do. Having found an old debian partition on my second hard disk, I decided to install Ubuntu 8.0.4 Desktop on it. After 15 minutes, my computer was working again, running Ubuntu 8.0.4 as before. Still, my data were lost.

    Step 3: Restore with bacula

    Bacula is a great network backup solution that I put in place 2 years ago. Every night my bacula server is creating an incremental, differential or full backup of my computer (zebulon). It is the first time thought that I had to recover a full content. For the recovery, you have to use the Bacula Console and use the restore command.

    ciceron $ bconsole

    Every action made in bacula creates a job that is recorded in the database. The first thing is to identify those jobs that did the full, differential and incremental backups.

    • list jobs
     | JobId | Name      | StartTime           | Type | Level | JobFiles  | JobBytes       | JobStatus |
     |   877 | Zebulon   | 2007-12-02 02:22:27 | B    | F     | 1,245,258 | 31,026,036,274 | T         |
     | 1,067 | Zebulon   | 2008-02-03 00:52:18 | B    | F     |         0 |              0 | f         |
     | 1,319 | Zebulon   | 2008-04-26 22:28:29 | B    | D     |   207,801 |  6,048,511,830 | T         |
     | 1,328 | Zebulon   | 2008-04-29 22:17:04 | B    | I     |         0 |              0 | E         |
     | 1,331 | Zebulon   | 2008-04-30 22:17:04 | B    | I     |     1,025 |    761,323,545 | T         |
     | 1,511 | Zebulon   | 2008-06-29 22:47:57 | B    | I     |    77,997 |  9,050,108,256 | T         |
     | 1,514 | Zebulon   | 2008-06-30 22:16:40 | B    | I     |       968 |    613,957,318 | T         |
     | 1,517 | Zebulon   | 2008-07-01 22:16:38 | B    | I     |    16,710 |    866,232,575 | T         |
     | 1,520 | Zebulon   | 2008-07-02 22:17:00 | B    | I     |    11,530 |    887,021,057 | T         |
    

    In result above is just an extract of the list command. Job 877 is a full backup (level F) and I had no other recent full backups than this one. It must be restored first. Since bacula has pruned the files, it has lost all the information about its contain (my backup could have been improved). Anyway, it is possible to restore completely this full backup. Jobs 1067 and 1328 cannot be used because they were in errors (I had many of them because the computer is off when the daily backup is started or for some other reasons). This is not a problem, bacula just ignores those jobs for the restore. To restore the full backup use the restore command:

      * __restore__
     
      First you select one or more JobIds that contain files
      to be restored. You will be presented several methods
      of specifying the JobIds. Then you will be allowed to
      select which files from those JobIds are to be restored.
    

    After this, the bacula restore command prompts for a restore method. You can restore a files selectively, find files or restore a complete job or complete client. For me, I had to restore the full backup (job 877) so I selected the Enter list of comma separated JobIds to select method with my full backup job id:

     To select the JobIds, you have the following choices:
       1: List last 20 Jobs run
       2: List Jobs where a given File is saved
       3: Enter list of comma separated JobIds to select
       4: Enter SQL list command
       5: Select the most recent backup for a client
       6: Select backup for a client before a specified time
       7: Enter a list of files to restore
       8: Enter a list of files to restore before a specified time
       9: Find the JobIds of the most recent backup for a client
      10: Find the JobIds for a backup for a client before a specified time
      11: Enter a list of directories to restore for found JobIds
      12: Cancel
     Select item:  (1-12): __3__
       Enter JobId(s), comma separated, to restore: __877__
       You have selected the following JobId: 877
       
       Building directory tree for JobId 877 ...
       There were no files inserted into the tree, so file selection
       is not possible.Most likely your retention policy pruned the files
       
       Do you want to restore all the files? (yes|no):     __yes__
    

    After this step, bacula searches which volumes (backup files, DVD, tapes) contain the backup:

       Bootstrap records written to /var/lib/bacula/janus-dir.restore.12.bsr
       
       The job will require the following
         Volume(s)            Storage(s)                SD Device(s)
       ===================================================
       
         Full-0013            File                      FileStorage
         Full-0014            File                      FileStorage
         Full-0015            File                      FileStorage
         Full-0016            File                      FileStorage
         Full-0017            File                      FileStorage
         Full-0035            File                      FileStorage
         Full-0036            File                      FileStorage
         Full-0037            File                      FileStorage
       
       1,245,258 files selected to be restored.
    

    Now, I had to choose the client for the restore. For some reasons, I had to choose my crashed computer (zebulon):

       Defined Clients:
           1: janus-fd
           2: zebulon-fd
       Select the Client (1-2):    __2__
    

    Bacula describes the restore job and you have a chance to change some parameters. In general, the restore process is made by the bacula daemon on the computer that you want to restore (ie, the client). This is natural, your computer X crashed and you want to recover on it. In my case, I wanted to recover on bacula server (called janus).

        Run Restore job
        JobName:         RestoreFiles
        Bootstrap:       /var/lib/bacula/janus-dir.restore.13.bsr
        Where:           /tmp/bacula-restores
        Replace:         always
        FileSet:         Janus Files
        Backup Client:   zebulon-fd
        Restore Client:  zebulon-fd
        Storage:         File
        When:            2008-07-05 14:16:28
        Catalog:         MyCatalog
        Priority:        10
        OK to run? (yes/mod/no): __mod__
        Parameters to modify:
         1: Level
         2: Storage
         3: Job
         4: FileSet
         5: Restore Client
         6: When
         7: Priority
         8: Bootstrap
         9: Where
        10: File Relocation
        11: Replace
        12: JobId
        Select parameter to modify (1-12): __5__
        The defined Client resources are:
         1: janus-fd
         2: zebulon-fd
       Select Client (File daemon) resource (1-2):__ 1__
        Run Restore job
        JobName:         RestoreFiles 
        Bootstrap:       /var/lib/bacula/janus-dir.restore.13.bsr
        Where:           /tmp/bacula-restores
        Replace:         always
        FileSet:         Janus Files
        Backup Client:   zebulon-fd
        Restore Client:  janus-fd
        Storage:         File
        When:            2008-07-05 14:16:28
        Catalog:         MyCatalog
        Priority:        10
        OK to run? (yes/mod/no):  __yes__
    

    The restore process runs in background and a message and an email are sent after the restore job has finished. In my case, the files were restored on my bacula server in a /tmp/bacula-restores directory. When the restore process finished, that directory contained all my files.... back in December 2007. The differential backup was restored in the same say because the files were pruned too. Other jobs were restored as follows, using the same restore command:

        * __restore__
       
        First you select one or more JobIds that contain files
        to be restored. You will be presented several methods
        of specifying the JobIds. Then you will be allowed to
        select which files from those JobIds are to be restored.
       
        To select the JobIds, you have the following choices:
         1: List last 20 Jobs run
         2: List Jobs where a given File is saved
         3: Enter list of comma separated JobIds to select
         4: Enter SQL list command
         5: Select the most recent backup for a client
         6: Select backup for a client before a specified time
         7: Enter a list of files to restore
         8: Enter a list of files to restore before a specified time
         9: Find the JobIds of the most recent backup for a client
        10: Find the JobIds for a backup for a client before a specified time
        11: Enter a list of directories to restore for found JobIds
        12: Cancel
        Select item:  (1-12):__ 3__
        Enter JobId(s), comma separated, to restore: __1331,1511,1514,1517,1520__
        You have selected the following JobIds: 1331,1511,1514,1517,1520
       
        Building directory tree for JobId 1331 ...
        Building directory tree for JobId 1511 ...  +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
        Building directory tree for JobId 1517 ...  +++++++++++++++++++++++++ 
        Building directory tree for JobId 1520 ...  +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
        5 Jobs, 75,552 files inserted into the tree.
       
        You are now entering file selection mode where you add (mark) and
        remove (unmark) files to be restored. No files are initially added, unless
        you used the "all" keyword on the command line.
        Enter "done" to leave this mode.
       
        cwd is: /
        $ __mark *__
        79,536 files marked.
        $ __done__
        Bootstrap records written to /var/lib/bacula/janus-dir.restore.14.bsr
       
        The job will require the following
       Volume(s)            Storage(s)                SD Device(s)
        ======================================================
       
       Incr-0002            File                      FileStorage
       Incr-0005            File                      FileStorage
       Incr-0001            File                      FileStorage
       Incr-0006            File                      FileStorage
       
       79,536 files selected to be restored.
    

    After the restore jobs finished, all my files were restored back to July 2nd 2008.

    Lesson learned and conclusion

    1. Backup is vital in computer world. You don't want to loose your photos, emails and documents. When you loose one of them, you just cry. When you loose everything, you....die.
    2. My bacula configuration is not perfect. In particular it should do a full backup every 3 or 6 months. In the past I only used some file recovery but I've never tested a full recovery. This was an error (without bad consequences hopefully). Every change in bacula configuration must be followed by a full recovery test.
    3. The system partitions (/ and /usr) were not backup. Even if we can restore them with an installation, this may not be a good idea. You loose the configuration files and the knowledge of all the packages you have installed. Loosing this is not a big deal but it is a matter of time.
    4. It is necessary to test on a regular basis that we can recover from the backup. The problem is absolutely not the software itself. The problem is the backup configuration and backup needs that change over the time.

    I am very thankful to the Bacula development team for their software. It is really a professional backup solution. I knew that for sure but now I can say I tested it in real situation. The hard disk failure only costs me time: time to install, time to recover the backup and time to write this story....

    • Page 1