Java 2 Ada

Generating a REST Ada client with OpenAPI and Swagger Codegen

By stephane.carrez

The OpenAPI initiative aims at defining a standard for the specification of REST API. The OpenAPI Specification (OAS) defines a programming language-agnostic interface to describe a REST API. The Swagger Codegen generator supports more than 28 different languages (including Ada) and it is able to read an OpenAPI document and generate either the documentation or the client and server REST code for several target languages.

swagger-ada-generator.png

Writing an OpenAPI document

The OpenAPI document is either a JSON or a YAML file that describes the REST API operations. The document can be used both for the documentation of the API and for the code generation in several programming language. We will see briefly through the Petstore example how the OpenAPI document is organized. The full OpenAPI document is available in petstore.yaml.

General description

A first part of the OpenAPI document provides a general description of the API. This includes the general description, the terms of service, the license and some contact information.

swagger: '2.0'
info:
  description: 'This is a sample server Petstore server.  You can find out more about Swagger at [http://swagger.io](http://s
wagger.io) or on [irc.freenode.net, #swagger](http://swagger.io/irc/).  For this sample, you can use the api key `special-key
` to test the authorization filters.'
  version: 1.0.0
  title: Swagger Petstore
  termsOfService: 'http://swagger.io/terms/'
  contact:
    email: apiteam@swagger.io
  license:
    name: Apache 2.0
    url: 'http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0.html'
host: petstore.swagger.io
basePath: /v2

Type description

The OpenAPI document can also describe types which are used by the REST operations. These types provide a description of how the data is organized and passed through the API operations.

It is possible to describe almost all possible types from simple properties, group of properties up to complex types including arrays. For example a Pet type is made of several properties each of them having a name, a type and other information to describe how the type is serialized.

definitions:
  Pet:
    title: a Pet
    description: A pet for sale in the pet store
    type: object
    required:
      - name
      - photoUrls
    properties:
      id:
        type: integer
        format: int64
      category:
        $ref: '#/definitions/Category'
      name:
        type: string
        example: doggie
      photoUrls:
        type: array
        xml:
          name: photoUrl
          wrapped: true
        items:
          type: string
      tags:
        type: array
        xml:
          name: tag
          wrapped: true
        items:
          $ref: '#/definitions/Tag'
      status:
        type: string
        description: pet status in the store
        enum:
          - available
          - pending
          - sold
    xml:
      name: Pet

In this example, the Pet type contains 6 properties (id, category, name, photoUrls, tags, status) and refers to two other types Category and Tag.

Operation description

Operations are introduced by the paths object in the OpenAPI document. This section describes the possible paths that can be used by URL and the associated operation. Some operations receive their parameter within the path and this is represented by the {name} notation.

The operation description indicates the HTTP method that is used get, post, put or delete.

The following definition describes the getPetById operation.

paths:
  '/pet/{petId}':
    get:
      tags:
        - pet
      summary: Find pet by ID
      description: Returns a single pet
      operationId: getPetById
      produces:
        - application/xml
        - application/json
      parameters:
        - name: petId
          in: path
          description: ID of pet to return
          required: true
          type: integer
          format: int64
      responses:
        '200':
          description: successful operation
          schema:
            $ref: '#/definitions/Pet'
        '400':
          description: Invalid ID supplied
        '404':
          description: Pet not found
      security:
        - api_key: []

The summary and description are used for the documentation purposes. The operationId is used by code generators to provide an operation name that a target programming language can use. The produces section indicates the media types that are supported by the operation and which are generated for the response. The parameters section represents all the operation parameters. Some parameters can be extracted from the path (which is the case for the petId parameter) and some others can be passed as query parameter.

The responses section describes the possible responses for the operation as well as the format used by the response. In this example, the operation returns an object described by the Pet type.

Using Swagger Codegen

The documentation and the Ada client are generated from the OpenAPI document by using the Swagger Codegen generator. The generator is a Java program that is packaged within a jar file. It must be launched by the Java 7 or Java 8 runtime.

Generating the documentation

The HTML documentation is generated from the OpenAPI document by using the following command:

 java -jar swagger-codegen-cli.jar generate -l html -i petstore.yaml -o doc

Generating the Ada client

To generate the Ada client, you will use the -l ada option to use the Ada code generator. The OpenAPI document is passed with the -i option.

 java -jar swagger-codegen-cli.jar generate -l ada -i petstore.yaml -o client \
       -DprojectName=Petstore --model-package Samples.Petstore

The Ada generator uses two options to control the generation. The -DprojectName=Petstore option allows to control the name of the generated GNAT project and the --model-package option controls the name of the Ada package for the generated code.

The Ada generator will create the following Ada packages:

  • Samples.Petstore.Models is the package that contains all the types described in the OpenAPI document. Each OpenAPI type is represented by an Ada record and it is also completed by an instantiation of the Ada.Containers.Vectors package for the representation of arrays of the given type. The Models package also provides Serialize and Deserialize procedures for the serialization and deserialization of the data over JSON or XML streams.
  • Samples.Petstore.Clients is the package that declares the Client_Type tagged record which provides all the operations for the OpenAPI document.

For the Pet type describe previously, the Ada generator produces the following code extract:

package Samples.Petstore.Models is
   ...
   type Pet_Type is
     record
       Id : Swagger.Long;
       Category : Samples.Petstore.Models.Category_Type;
       Name : Swagger.UString;
       Photo_Urls : Swagger.UString_Vectors.Vector;
       Tags : Samples.Petstore.Models.Tag_Type_Vectors.Vector;
       Status : Swagger.UString;
     end record;
     ...
end Samples.Petstore.Models;

and for the operation it generates the following code:

package Samples.Petstore.Clients is
   ...
   type Client_Type is new Swagger.Clients.Client_Type with null record;
   procedure Get_Pet_By_Id
      (Client : in out Client_Type;
       Pet_Id : in Swagger.Long;
       Result : out Samples.Petstore.Models.Pet_Type);
   ...
end Samples.Petstore.Clients;

Using the REST Ada client

Initialization

The HTTP/REST support is provided by Ada Util and encapsulated by Swagger Ada. The Ada Util library also takes care of the JSON and XML serialization and deserialization. If you want to use Curl, you should initialize with the following:

with Util.Http.Clients.Curl;
...
   Util.Http.Clients.Curl.Register;

But if you want to use AWS, you will initialize with:

with Util.Http.Clients.Web;
...
   Util.Http.Clients.Web.Register;

After the initialization is done, you will declare a client instance to access the API operations:

with Samples.Petstore.Clients;
...
   C : Samples.Petstore.Clients.Client_Type;

And you should initialize the server base URL you want to connect to. To use the live Swagger Petstore service you can set the server base URL as follows:

  C.Set_Server ("http://petstore.swagger.io/v2");

At this stage, you can use the generated operation by calling operations on the client.

Calling a REST operation

Let's retrieve some pet information by calling the Get_Pet_By_Id operation described previously. This operation needs an integer as input parameter and returns a Pet_Type object that contains all the pet information. You will first declare the pet instance as follows:

with Samples.Petstore.Models;
...
  Pet  : Samples.Petstore.Models.Pet_Type;

And then call the Get_Pet_By_Id operation:

  C.Get_Pet_By_Id (768, Pet);

At this stage, you can access information from the Pet instance:

with Ada.Text_IO;
...
  Ada.Text_IO.Put_Line ("Id      : " & Swagger.Long'Image (Pet.Id));
  Ada.Text_IO.Put_Line ("Name    : " & Swagger.To_String (Pet.Name));
  Ada.Text_IO.Put_Line ("Status  : " & Swagger.To_String (Pet.Status));

The Swagger Ada Petstore illustrates other uses of the generated operations. It allows to list the inventory, list the pets with a given status, add a pet and so on...

Conclusion and references

The OpenAPI Specification provides a standard way to describe REST operations. The Swagger Codegen is the generator to be used to simplify the implementation of REST clients in many programming languages and to generate the documentation of the API. The Ada code generator only supports the client side but the server code generation is under work.

The sources of the petstore samples are available:

The APIs.guru lists more than 550 API descriptions from various providers such as Amazon, Google, Microsoft and many other online services. They are now available to the Ada community!

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